One of the most famous teas in Taiwan is gao shan cha 高山茶 (káu.ʂán tsǎ), literally high mountain tea. High mountain teas refer to oolongs that are grown at a high altitude, at over 1000m (around 3280ft) above sea level, shaped into a ball, lightly oxidised. Although they are very well known, they only became popular in the 1980s. Farmers growing tea at high altitudes produce their teas in this style as it takes less time and skill to make. However, if they are made well, the high altitude produces very good teas.
In the case of Taiwanese high mountain tea, the tea farm will be on a mountainside at over 1000m (approximately 3280ft) above sea level. A high altitude in Taiwan is conducive to many factors that go towards a good tasting tea: high humidity; high precipitation; a lot of mist; thin, clear air; cooler temperatures and a big temperature difference between daytime and the evening. Mist aids tea as it helps to dapple the sunlight, thin air encourages the tea bushes to grow slowly, which produces a better flavour, and the big temperature difference in a day produces complexity.
High mountain teas can be described as having a crisp, fresh, clean, complex, floral and slightly sweet flavour, that lingers in the mouth, a sweet and fresh aroma, and a creamy texture. To tell that the tea is of fine quality, look for a fresh and fine taste that lasts a long time after drinking, and for the creamy texture. These indicate mineral content in the leaves and well-processed tea respectively.
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